Shiraz City

   

Shiraz City

Eilam

shiraz

City Of Gardens

Introduction


Shiraz (/ʃiːˈrɑːz/ (About this sound listen); Persian: شیراز‎‎, Šīrāz, Persian pronunciation: [ʃiːˈrɒːz], About this sound pronunciation (help·info)) is the sixth-most-populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province (Old Persian as Pârsâ). At the 2011 census, the population of the city was 1,700,665 and its built-up area with "Shahr-e Jadid-e Sadra" (Sadra New Town) was home to 1,500,644 inhabitants. Shiraz is located in the southwest of Iran on the "Roodkhaneye Khoshk" (The Dry River) seasonal river. It has a moderate climate and has been a regional trade center for over a thousand years. Shiraz is one of the oldest cities of ancient Persia.
The earliest reference to the city, as Tiraziš, is on Elamite clay tablets dated to 2000 BC. In the 13th century, Shiraz became a leading center of the arts and letters, due to the encouragement of its ruler and the presence of many Persian scholars and artists. It was the capital of Persia during the Zand dynasty from 1750 until 1800. Two famous poets of Iran, Hafez and Saadi, are from Shiraz, whose tombs are on the north side of the current city boundaries. 
Shiraz is known as the city of poets, literature, wine (despite Iran being an Islamic republic), and flowers. It is also considered by many Iranians to be the city of gardens, due to the many gardens and fruit trees that can be seen in the city, for example Eram Garden. Shiraz has had major Jewish and Christian communities. The crafts of Shiraz consist of inlaid mosaic work of triangular design; silver-ware; pile carpet-weaving and weaving of kilim, called gilim and jajim in the villages and among the tribes. In Shiraz industries such as cement production, sugar, fertilizers, textile products, wood products, metalwork and rugs dominate. Shirāz also has a major oil refinery and is also a major center for Iran's electronic industries: 53% of Iran's electronic investment has been centered in Shiraz. Shiraz is home to Iran's first solar power plant.[9] Recently the city's first wind turbine has been installed above Babakoohi mountain near the city.



Weather

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Shiraz’s climate has distinct seasons, and is overall classed as a hot semi-arid climate , though it is only a little short of a hot-summer Mediterranean climate .Summers are hot, with a July average high of 38.8 °C (101.8 °F). Winters are cool, with average low temperatures below freezing in December and January. 

Famous Places




Karimkhan Citadel (Arg-e Karimkhan):

The Karim Khan Castle or Arg-E Karim Khan is a citadel located in the downtown Shiraz, southern Iran. It was built as part of a complex during the Zand dynasty and is named after Karim Khan, and served as his living quarters.The design of the citadel combines military and residential architecture, for it was the home of Karim Khan and the military center of the dynasty.Arg-e-Karim Khan was built in 1180 AH (1766-7). Karim Khan invited the best architects and artists of the time and bought the best materials from other cities and abroad for the construction of the citadel of Karim Khan, which was quickly constructed. During the Zand dynasty it was used by the king as living quarters. During the Qajar period it was used as the governor's seat.Prince Abdolhosein Mirza Farmanfarma, governor of Fars Province, ordered the miniatures in the citadel to be renovated.After the fall of the Qajar Dynasty it was converted into a prison and the paintings were plastered over. In 1971 it was given to Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization. The renovation of the citadel started in 1977.





Saraye Moshir:
Saraye Moshir (Persian: سرای مشیر‎‎) is traditional Bazaar in Shiraz, Southern city of Iran. It was founded more than 250 years ago under the order of government general of Fars province in Shiraz named Mirza Abolhassan MoshirolMolk. It was made as bazaar in the first days of its establishment. hereafter the time passed and history began. In some days this place was used as a museum and also as a traditional restaurant and Tea-Serving center. After the revolution in Iran it was cloused for some years. then it began to become a place for making handcrafts and artful goods. till then up to now it has continued.











Tomb of Hafez:
The Tomb of Hafez and its associated memorial hall, the Hāfezieh, are two memorial structures erected in the northern edge of Shiraz, Iran, in memory of the celebrated Persian poetHafez. The open pavilion structures are situated in the Musalla Gardens on the north bank of a seasonal river and house the marble tomb of Hafez. The present buildings, built in 1935 and designed by the French architect and archaeologist André Godard, are at the site of previous structures, the most well-known of which was built in 1773. The tomb, its gardens, and the surrounding memorials to other great figures are a focus of tourism in Shiraz.Hafezie (Tomb of Hafez), one of the most popular attractions of Shiraz, is situated in a garden on the banks of Rukn-Abad river.The original structure, built in 1773 A.D during the reign of Karim Khan Zand, consisted of four stone columns at the centre, the north and south sides of which were open .On each of the other two sides a room had been built. 
The actual tomb of Hafez was outside and behind this building in the middle of the garden, and later on, an iron railing was fixed round the tomb. In 1930's, by direction of the Ministry of Education, the Mausoleum of Hafez acquired its present form. The stone edging of the tanks of the Karim Khan buildings, which had been removed when the Zand Avenue in Shiraz was extended, were transferred to the compound of the Hafeziyeh, and placed in position round pools of water. The four original columns in the centre were retained, and sixteen other stone columns of one piece and of similar shape were prepared, and the present colonnade of twenty columns of a length of 56 meters was erected, with decorative designs, plaster mouldings and faience, in accordance with ancient and original Shiraz styles. The original tombstone was raised on an eight-sided platform on which eight stone columns stand. These columns support the roof, which is canopy covered with copper sheeting, and the ceiling beneath decorated with a mosaic of enameled tiles. 










Nasir ol Molk Mosque:
One of the most elegant and most photographed pieces of architecture in southern Iran, the Pink Mosque was built at the end of the 19th century and its coloured tiling (an unusually deep shade of blue) is exquisite. There are some particularly fine muqarnas in the small outer portal and in the northern iwan, but it is the stained glass, carved pillars and polychrome faience of the winter prayer hall that dazzle the eye when the sun streams in.The mosque attracts most visitors early in the morning (9am to 11am is best) when the hall and its Persian carpets are illuminated with a kaleidoscope of patterned flecks of light. It makes for a magical experience – and an irresistible photograph.A museum in the opposite prayer hall opens into the Gav Cha (Cow Well), where cows were used to raise water from the underground qanat. The structure has survived numerous earthquakes, due in part to its construction using flexible wood as struts within the walls – look for the wooden bricks in the iwan columns. The rose-pink floral tiles are a signature feature of Shiraz.








Eram Garden:
The Eram Garden is one of the most beautiful and monumental gardens of Iran. Apparently, its history goes back to the period of the Saljuq Dynasty (A.D.1038-1194). Since its construction and until the late 18th century, it was predominantly used by the local rulers and Persian monarchs. At the end of the Zand Dynasty (A.D.1750-1794), the Qashqaie tribal chieftains tookover the garden and the one of them called Jani Khan and his son constructed a building within it. At the time of Nasir ud-Din Shah Qajar (A.D.1848-1896), a Shirazi nobleman, Haj Nassir ul-Mulk, bought the garden from the Qashqaie overlords and constructed the present charming building. After passing through a chain of owners, the garden was finally handed over to shiraz University in 1963. It is now being used as a botanical garden by plant science researchers and general public.The main building of the garden consists of three stories. In the basement one can see a beautiful small pond while on the second floor, at the center of the building is a large porch with two high standing pillars.On both sides of the large porch, two other small porches can be seen facing the rays of the morning sun.Two-meter high solid stone plates decorate the external façade of the building six of these plates have inscriptions in beautiful cursive Persian, depicting poems by some of the most famous Persian poets, notably Sa’di, Hafez and Shurideh. On the top of the façade, there are three large and two small crescent-shape tile works, each illustrating an epic or religions event painted on seven-colored titles. The seraglio is located in the back and is allocated    to the convenience of the family members. The building also hosts a large pond in front of it.The presence of tall and beautiful cypress trees around the garden captures everyone’s attention. The pleasant fragrance of flower along with the song of nightingales and the alluring dance of blossoms enchant the visitor.In 1980, this garden was converted into botanical garden by shiraz University. Since 1999 a comprehensive project entitled The Reconstruction and Rehabilitation of the Eram Garden implemented by the vice-chancellor for Research has enhanced the beauty and the magic charm of the Eram Garden.

 




Zinat Al-Moluk House:
This house is built in Lotfali khan Zand Str. Next to NaranjestanGhavam. The former owner was daughter of Ghavamolmolk4th.This house shows unique architecture of Qajar era, was built during 1911-1923, with wooden roof, marvelous painting of nature & animals, mirror and wood artworks, beautiful tiles. It has about 20 rooms connected to each other. This house was joint to Ghavam house with a subterranean tunnel. The overwhelming yard has small garden with lovely ponds.In the basement is a museum like Madam Tussaude, withwax sculpturesof famous people from ancient era in Fars province to recent time in real size.








Tomb of Saadi:

Saadi is writer and philosopher who was born and died in the 13th century in Shiraz. He is a great lyric poet second only to Hafez. He is recognized for the quality of his writings and for the depth of his social and moral thoughts. He spent many years wandering from the Middle East to North Africa and to India. He finally settled in Shiraz where he composed his two major works. Those are Golestan (The Garden of Roses) and Boostan (The Orchard). He is not only famous in Persian-speaking countries, but has also been quoted in western sources. his famous poem(Bani adam ) written on the entrance of the United Nations and the President Barack Obama quoted the first two lines of this poem in his New Year’s greeting to the people of Iran on March 20, 2009.







Qur'an Gate:

At the Northern entrance of Shiraz there is the Quran Gate at the side of the street, it was first built in 950 A.D., and a Quran was put atop of it so the people who either entered or left the city would receive the blessing. It was once destroyed in an earthquake and was rebuilt by Karim Khan, but Reza Shah demolished it and finally a Shirazi trader rebuilt it again. Nowadays “The Quran Gate” is the name of the gate itself and the surrounding area. Next to the gate there are two rocky hills which you can climb using stairs and enjoy a great view of the city.











Khwaju Kermani tomb:
Khaju tomb is located in north of Shiraz, on the hillside Sabooy and Road Shiraz - Isfahan in a narrow Allahu Akbar Gorge. His grave overlooks the Qur'an Gate. Roknabad famous spring water also passes near the tomb Khaju.[1] The tomb was built with the Funding Department of Culture of fars in 1315 Solar.[2] Tomb is located in Enclosure without roof.Its headstone is in the middle of the platform that its above is convex and has a bulge.there is not any Inscription that represent the Khaju grave.Only on stone is written this sentence کل من علیها فان و یبقی وجه ربک ذوالجلال و الاکرام











Vakil Bath:
Vakil Bath is an old public bath in Shiraz, Iran. It was a part of the royal district constructed during Karim Khan Zand's reign, which includes Arg of Karim Khan, Vakil Bazaar, Vakil Mosque and many administrative buildings. During the time of its construction, 18th century, private baths in homes were rare and going to this bath was considered a royal treatment.The entrance hall of the bath house is where the shoes and clothes were changed before entrance to the bathing area. The historical bath house was not only famous for its uniqueness and diversity of people who would attend but also for its beautiful architecture featuring traditional Persian dome style ceilings.The turquoise colored tiles that decorate the ins and outs of the buildings, and others, are also a historically famous trend of Persian architecture. What you see as concrete now was once glimmering colorful tiles that covered floor and ceiling. There was a special room where was a common place for people to sit down, socialize, and do work as they waited their turn for a bath.Stepping through low arched hallways to enter other rooms, one can get a feel for the bathing process. One of the last rooms features a place where the people wait their turns for massages, scrubs, and even getting their teeth pulled.The building is used as a museum now.









Shah Cheragh:
Shah Cheragh is a funerary monument and mosque in Shiraz, Iran. It translates to “King of the Light” and it’s easy to understand why. The jaw-dropping interior of this structure has millions of tiny mirror shards which bounce the light in every direction.The site has a rather mysterious past. According to one story, around 900 A.D. a traveller spotted something shining from a distance. He approached the area to investigate and found an illuminated grave. An armored corpse of an important Muslim figure was found inside and the area became a pilgrimage destination for Shia Muslims. A structure was built to house the tomb and as time went by it became more and more complex.Even though Shah Cheragh has been damaged by people, nature, and time, numerous repairs kept it standing to this day.
 It still shines bright like a diamond and attracts pilgrims and tourists from all over the world.