ENGLISH / Cities / Hamedan City Hamedan City Eilam HAMEDAN Lovely city at Iran Introduction Hamadan, also spelled Hamadān, ancient Ecbatana, city, capital of Hamadān province, west-central Iran. It is situated at the northeastern foot of Mount Alvand (11,716 feet [3,571 metres]). Itself at an elevation of 6,158 feet (1,877 metres), the city dominates the wide, fertile plain of the upper Qareh Sū River. There is a sizable Turkish-speaking minority.Hamadan is mentioned in the Bible (Ezra 6:1–3), and there is a tradition of Jewish association with the town. The putative tomb of Esther located there is in reality that of Queen Shushandukt, or Suzan, wife of the Sāsānian king Yazdegerd I (died 420 CE) and mother of Bahrām V, the great hunter. She helped establish a Jewish colony in the city and was herself of that faith. Her tomb and the reputed grave of Mordecai, uncle of Esther, are both places of pilgrimage.About 1220 Hamadan was destroyed by the Mongols. In 1386 it was sacked by Timur (Tamerlane), a Turkic conqueror, and the inhabitants massacred. It was partly restored in the 17th century and subsequently changed hands often between Iranian ruling houses and the Ottomans. In modern times its strategic position caused a revival. The city was damaged during the Iran-Iraq War (1980–88).Modern development is modest. Weather Hamedan climate is mild, and generally warm and temperate. The rain in Hamedan falls mostly in the winter, with relatively little rain in the summer. The climate here is classified as Csa by the Köppen-Geiger system. Famous Places Tomb of Esther and Mordechai: The Tomb of Esther and Mordechai (Persian: بقعه استر و مردخای) is located in Hamadan, Iran. Believed by some to house the remains of the biblical Queen Esther and her cousin Mordechai, it is the most important pilgrimage site for Jews in the country.In 1891, the tomb was described as consisting of an outer and inner chamber surmounted by a dome about 50 feet (15 m) high. The dome had been covered with blue tiles, but most of them had fallen away. A few tombs of worthy Jewish individuals were located within the outer chamber. According to Stuart Brown, the site is more probably the sepulcher of Shushandukht, the Jewish consort of the Sasanian king Yazdegerd I (399–420 A.D.). Alvand or Tarik Darreh ski resort: Alvand or Tarik Darreh ski resort is located 10 Kilometers South west Ganj Nameh road, Hamedan. There are 3 tele skis which give services to the skiers. The piste is equipped with dining hall, Dorm and other facilities for almost 500 people. Avicenna Mausoleum: Avicenna is one of the renowned scientists and geniuses of Iran and the world whose works, especially “The Canon” which was a medical encyclopedia, have been translated in several languages and taught for years in the most prestigious universities all around the world. This brilliant scientist has eminent works and profound knowledge about various sciences including philosophy, mathematics, medicine, natural science, occult science, music, and psychology. He has authored 450 books on a variety of fields, mostly medicine and philosophy. In his “History of Science”, George Sarton mentions Avicenna as one of the greatest medical thinkers and scientists. His most famous works are “The Book of Healing” and “The Canon of Medicine”. The current tomb of Avicenna is in the houses of Abu Sa’id Dakhuk, his old friend. Avicenna spent some time at his house as a guest. The remains of his body were transferred to and buried in that house. The tombs of both of them are located there. This monument was built by the great architect, Hooshang Seyhoun. The construction of this monument was inspired by Gonbad-e Qabus (Qabus Dome), an architectural masterpiece in Islamic history of Iran. Avicenna’s birthday, i.e. August 23, is commemorated as the National Doctors’ Day in Iran. Hamadan Stone Lion: The stone lion of Hamadan (Persian: šir-e sangi-ye hamedân) is a historical monument in Hamadan, Iran.The stone lion -one part of the ‘Lions Gate’- sits on a hill where a Parthian era cemetery is said to have been located.When first built, this statue had a twin counterpart for which they both constituted the old gate of the city. During the Islamic conquest of Persia, the victorious Arabs referred to the gate as bâb ul-asad ( “the lions gate”).The gates were demolished in 931CE as the Deylamids took over the city. Mardāvij unsuccessfully tried transporting one of the lions to Ray. Angered by the failure to move them, he ordered them to be demolished. One lion was completely destroyed, while the other had its arm broken and pulled to the ground. The half demolished lion lay on its side on the ground until 1949, when it was raised again, using a supplemental arm that was built into it. Iran’s Cultural Heritage Organization reports that the lions were first thought to have been built by the orders of Alexander the Great to commemorate the death of his close companion Hephaestion. Alavian dome: This dome is an unparalleled and unique example of Islamic-Iranian architecture. It goes back to the late Seljuk, about 1106 . it was built by the order of Alavian family as a mosque and later was used as family tomb. In the distant past there was a dome but in the passage of time,it was ruined . This structure is noteworthy for the Researchers because of its exceptionally delicate decorations. There are no documentary evidences showing how did the dome look like so reshaping of the dome is still impossible . Hegmataneh (Ecbatana) Ancient Hill: The Hegmataneh hill is a historic hill with over 3000 years of history which dates back to the Median period. This historic hill contains an underground city which is the capital of the first kingdom in Iran. It covers an area of about 30 hectares and is located in the old section of Hamedan city in the Ekbatan Street.The area enjoys a great variety of Parthian modern architectural systems of urban areas that are masterpieces of their time and reveal their creators special talent.This city consists of parallel crossings which include symmetric buildings. In addition to the water supply system this city has a 10 meter soft cover wall which has tall barracks in specific distances. The city’s main structure is built using clay and bricks. On top of the hill there is a palace, a treasury and a military base. This city had 7 walls; all the walls were same centered circles with the inner walls being taller than the outer walls.Hegmataneh Means: “Gathering place” in Persian and the Greek called the city Ekbatan. This city is believed to have been built by the Deioces the first Median King.Although the history of the city is controversial; nevertheless the area has historical remains dating back to Medes, Achamenids, Parthian, Sassanids and also Islamic dynasties like Aleh Bouyeh (Bouyehs Family) most of them belong to Parthian era. Qorban Historical Tower: This tomb is located in the city of Hamadan near the Ebne Sina Junior School. This is the resting abode of 'Sheikh-ol-Islam Hassan Ebne Attar Hafez Abol Ala' and a group of the commanders of the Saljuqi period. It was built in the 7th and 8th centuries AH., comprises of a brick tower with twelve sides and a brick pyramid shaped dome consisting of twelve (brick) panels. The external part of the building is composed of arches of unique and spectacular design. In the center of the tower is a simple grave, the tomb-stone of which is related to the Safavid period. It is said, that a person by the name of 'Qorban' constructed a trench in this area to safe-guard the people of this locality against the Afqan invasion. Thence the name of this tower. The Qorban tower is on record by The Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran. St Stephanos Gregorian Church: A church dedicated to Armenian saints Stephen and Gregory has existed on this site since the 1600s, though this latest incarnation dates from the early 20th century.A church dedicated to Armenian saints Stephen and Gregory has existed on this site since the 1600s, though this latest incarnation dates from the early 20th century. Ali-Sadr Cave: The Ali Sadr Cave (Persian: غار علی صدر) originally called Ali Saadr or Ali Saard (meaning cold) is the world's largest water cave which attracts thousands of visitors every year.Alisadr is the world's biggest water cave, where you sit in a boat and watch the view. This cave is located at 48°18'E 35°18'N, in the southern part of Ali Sadr village. The cave is entered at the side of a hill called Sari Ghiyeh which also includes two other caves called Sarab and Soubashi, each 7 and 11 kilometers from Ali Sadr Cave. Apparently, the water in Ali Sadr cave stems from a spring in Sarab.The cave has a river flowing through it and most travel through the cave system is done by boat. Ganjnameh: Ganjnameh is an ancient inscription, 5 kilometers southwest of Hamedan, into a rockface on the side of Alvand Mountain in Hamedan province. It sits along the ancient Imperial Road, connecting the Achaemenid capital Ecbatana to Babylonia. It was thus a safe and frequently traveled road and had much visibility during the Achaemeniad period. The inscriptions were first studied in detail by the French painter and archaeologist Eugene Flandin during the 19th century. Subsequently Sir Henry Rawlinson, a British explorer, used the inscriptions to decipher the cuneiform characters of the era. This ancient site is in the vicinity of a natural waterfall, adding to the beauty of the scene.The two inscriptions are almost identical other than the fact that the name of Xerxes has replaced that of Darius and some other slight revisions. The left plate, attributed to Darius, is positioned slightly higher than the right plate and measures 290 centimeters across and 190 centimeters tall. The right plate is just as tall but slightly shorter in width, spanning 270 centimeters.