Birjand City

   

Birjand City

Eilam

birjand


Pine City

Introduction

Nicknamed as City of Culture, Birjand was once an important city in Ghehestan (Part of the greater Khorasan). The city now serves as the capital of Southern Khorasan province in Eastern Iran. The small but organised and fast growing city is located on the eastern side of Iran’s central desert. That’s why the weather there is harsh and dry,  however, it is surprising that Birjand has had the first water system in Iran, even before that of Tehran and other big cities.Due the climate and being protected by mountain range and desert, Birjand’s culture and language have remained almost unaffected by the events from the ancient time until now and the Birjandi dialect of Persian is considered one of the oldest spoken accent of the language in Iran. It is said that the Shokatiyeh School in Birjand together with Darolfonoon in Tehran were the first modern public schools of higher education in Iran in the mid-19th century. Ever since then, Birjand has amassed an abundance of institutions of higher education and become an important location for research and development.


Weather

user

Birjand has a mid-latitude desert/ arid cool climate . hot summers and cool winters.

Famous Places




Akbarieh Garden:

Akbarieh House and Garden is one of the historical buildings in Birjand. This building was built in two floors in Qajar era by Shokat al-Molk. This garden is at the end of Moallem Street in Akbarieh Village in Birjand which is the center of southern Khorasan. With the expansion of Birjand, now the garden is located inside the city. This monument includes a mirror hall, pergola dome, honeycomb mogharnas decorations and official scheme that were merely for catering domestic and foreign political agents.This garden was registered as a world heritage monument in the thirty fifth UNESCO Conference in 2011 and it was registered in the list of Iran’s national monuments on 20th of Khordad 1378.











Furk castle:

Furk castle in the village the same name about 5 km from east of Birjand city in Darmian district is located. Birjand castles, were constructed in different periods. There are many mountainous areas makes the Ismaili sect in the region and to defend their castles and strong high in most areas of the city and other cities in South Khorasan and leave.Later, the residents of this city still was not been enough comfort and luxury of the Mongol invasion and Turkmen were Afghans.This historic castle was building Afshariye that Nader Shah time and was built by Mirza rafi Khan district ruler.Inside the castle from East to West is space includes three parts. The first part: food storage location of the crew and the whereabouts of cattle.The second part of military life guards and whereabouts of military supplies and the third part is the most important part of the castle has been home to the ruler and his entourage.










Castle and Garden Maud:
Mood (also written as Moud) is a city in the province South Khorasan in Iran and a county of the Sarbisheh County. Ferezmorgh is a subdivision of the city. Formerly up to the devision of the Province from Khorasan it was a borough of today South Khorasan's provincial capital Birjand. Archaeologists excavating in the southern historical town of Mood in South Khorasan province have unearthed ancient earthenware dating back to the Parthian dynastic era (248 BCE-224 CE). Excavations were conducted on an ancient mound located near the city of Birjand. Numerous historical artifacts dating back from the pre-historic eras up to the Safavid dynasty were found at the site.The last prince of Birjand was Shah Seyyed Ali Kazemi who came from Mood (where most people were related with him), a relative of the emperor Shah Reza Pahlavi and the Prime minister Asadollah Alam. The area is known for Mood blankets and carpets that have normally a curvilinear design with a sun flower shaped picture in the center. The production of such carpets is usually high-quality. These carpets are made of wool or cotton. They attained their valuation by the decree of the Persian Safavid emperor Shah Abbas I, who not only arranged the building of the fortresses in this region, but also retained the original Persian design styles and knot techniques.








Akbarieh Museum:
Considered the biggest archeology trove in South Khorasan Province, the Archeology Museum of Birjand was opened on the first floor of Akbarieh Mansion in 1992. Spanning an area of 600 square meters, the museum was further expanded in 1995.The museum showcases artifacts from the third millennium BC to the Qajar era (1785-1925) and has pottery, coin, metal, weapons and military equipment, lighting equipment, and Quran and manuscripts displays. Items belonging to the Pahlavi era (1925-1979) Prime Minister Amir Asadollah Alam (1919-1978) are also housed at this museum. The Archeology Museum of Birjand has a magnificent Hall of Mirrors.These artifacts originate from digs in Birjand and the southern part of the Khorasan region as well as other parts of the country.The coin display of the museum showcases coins minted in the Achaemenid (550-330 BC), Seleucid (312 –63 BC), Parthian (247 BC–224 CE), Elamais (147 BC- 224 CE), and Sassanid (226-651 CE) eras as well as Islamic coins until the Qajar era.The pottery and coin displays are the largest in the museum and showcase the art, beliefs, ideology of Iranians throughout the millenni








Rahimabad Garden and Mansion:

Rahim Abad Mansion and Garden is in Birjand City, one of the beautiful gardens of Iran and in a village with the same name. Rahim Abad Garden has two entrances and access to the interior parts is possible only through these entrances.Rahim Abad Mansion and Garden in Birjand is in a special position among Iranian gardens for its special architecture and decorations. This complex is comprised of a garden, mansion, numerous warehouses, pond, servants’ rooms, watchtowers, etc. The main mansion of this garden has two floors. The ground floor includes warehouses and the service section and the first floor includes several vast halls and attached rooms. The major part of this mansion is the mirror hall and most of the decorations in the rooms and halls are molding and mirror works. This mansion was established in 1315 hijri by the order of Ismail Khan and was used as the position of governance. This complex was purchased in 1380 by Cultural Heritage Organization from Mostazafan Institution and it was turned into a cultural complex in 1381. However, it is now used as a part of the Administration of Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism and its cultural and tourist application is lost.This monument was registered on 22nd of Khordad 1379 as one of the national monuments of Iran with the registration number 2707.








Kolahfarangy Arg:

Pavilion Arg is one of the historical monuments and tourist attractions which is known as the symbol of Birjand City. This monument, which is located in the center of the city, has been registered in the list of Iran's National Heritage under the registration number of 1880. It originally consisted of two windcathchres in two sides which were removed while subsequent refurbishments. Currently, this monument lies at the general governor office of South Khorasan Province. Pavilion Arg was used as government house in Amir Masoum Khan's reign, and it was built in late Zandieh period. Architecturally, this monument is different from other urban monuments.








Band Dareh Lake:
Located 5 kilometers south of Birjand, this lake has formed behind the Band Dareh dam, which was built in 1877 in the Qajar era (1785-1925). Loose stones from nearby mountains, brick and Sarooj (mix of lime and clay) mortar are the main materials used in the construction of this dam. The dam is approximately 31 meters long, 5 meters wide and 13 meters high. Band Dareh dam was registered as a National Heritage Site in 2002.










Chardeh Waterfalls:

Located 5 kilometers south of Birjand in Chardeh Village, this natural attraction consists of a series of 80 waterfalls of different heights. This area is suitable for mountain and rock climbing. 





















Old Post Office:
The building of the Old Post Office of Birjand is a late Qajar era (1785-1925) and early Pahlavi (1925-1979) structure. The structure was used as an arsenal in the Qajar era. It later became the Post Office of Birjand and was in use until 1982. Brick, mudbrick, stucco and clay mortar are the main materials used in the construction of the structure. The entrance of the Old Post Office is located on the eastern side of this two-story building. Both levels of the building have several rooms and corridors with brickwork decorations and ornamental arches. The building was renovated by Iran’s Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization (ICHHTO) and is now used as the ICHHTO office in Birjand. This building was registered as a National Heritage Site in 2006.









Shokatieh School:
Shokatieh or Shokati School was the third modern school opened in Iran after Dar ul-Funun in Tehran and Rashidieh in Tabriz. Originally built by Amir Mohammad Ebrahim Khan, Shokat al-Molk (1880-1943) as a Hosseiniyeh (congregation hall of religious ceremonies) in 1890, the structure was turned into a school in 1903. Shokatieh was built by architects from Yazd in the historical texture of Birjand and has the four-season design of Persian desert structures.Shokatieh initially became an elementary school but quickly expanded to include a high school. In the beginning, the founders of the school granted student’s scholarships and gave low-income families cash and food handouts to entice students to enroll in this modern school. The school was run by Shokat al-Molk until 1937 when the Ministry of Education of the time took over. The school was registered as a National Heritage Site in 2016.